Knowledge Center

Diagnosis

Cervical Neck

1Cervical Radiculopathy

Overview

This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the cervical spine. Because these nerves travel to the shoulders, arms and hands, an injury in the cervical spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Cervical radiculopathy may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the cervical spinal column.


Causes (Herniated Disc)

One common cause is a herniated disc. A herniated disc is a rupture in the fibrous outer wall of a vertebral disc, which allows the soft nucleus of the disc to bulge outward. This bulge can press harmfully against a nerve root.


Causes (Degenerative Disc Disease)

Another common cause of nerve root injury is degenerative disc disease. It occurs when a spinal disc weakens, allowing vertebral bones above and below the disc to shift out of position. The bones can touch, pinching nearby nerve roots.


Causes (Spinal Stenosis)

When bones, discs or joints of the spine degenerate, bony spurs may form and push into the spinal canal or foramen space. This is called spinal stenosis, and it can also create harmful pressure against the spinal cord or nerve roots.


Symptoms

Nerve root injury in the cervical spine most commonly involves one of the three lowest levels of cervical vertebrae, which are called C5, C6 and C7. Symptoms may include pain, weakness, numbness and tingling, and may vary depending on the level of the injury. For example, an injury at the C5 level may cause pain and weakness in the shoulder and upper arm.


An injury at the next vertebral level (the C6 vertebrae) may cause pain in the shoulder and the arm, and it may also cause weakness in the arm. And finally, an injury at the lowest level (the C7 vertebrae) may cause pain from the neck all the way down to the hand, along with weakness in the arm and hand.

2Cervical Herniated Disc

Overview A herniated disc is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.


Disc Anatomy

Vertebral discs are flexible, rubbery cushions that support the vertebral bones. They allow the spine to twist and bend. Each disc has a soft inner nucleus that is surrounded by a fibrous outer wall.


Herniated Disc

A herniated disc occurs when the nucleus pushes through the outer wall. This herniation can result in a large bulge that can press against nearby nerve roots.


Causes

Herniated discs commonly result from age-related weakening of the spinal discs. This is called disc degeneration, and it can occur gradually over many years as a result of normal wear and tear on the spine.

A herniated disc can also result from a traumatic injury, or from lifting a heavy object improperly. Symptoms Symptoms of a herniated disc vary depending on the location of the disc and the severity of the rupture. Some herniated discs cause no symptoms, and a person with this type of injury may not realize the disc is damaged. But a herniated disc can also cause severe pain, numbness or tingling, and weakness.

Most herniated discs occur in the lower back, where they can cause symptoms in the buttocks, legs and feet. Herniated discs also occur in the neck, where they can cause symptoms in the shoulders, arms and hands. Treatment Treatment options for herniated disc depend on the location and severity of the injury.

A herniated disc may be treated with pain-relieving medications, muscle relaxers and corticosteroid injections. A person with a herniated disc may benefit from physical therapy. If these methods are not effective, the disc may need to be treated with a surgical procedure.

3Cervical Facet Syndrome
Cervical facet syndrome, also known as cervical facet disease or cervical osteoarthritis, is the structural deterioration of one or more of the vertebral facet joints in the cervical (upper) segment of the spine, which is mostly located in the neck.
4Whiplash
Whiplash, also called cervical acceleration / deceleration (or CAD) syndrome, is a neck injury commonly caused by car accidents, falls, and contact sports. It results from a quick, jerking motion that forces the neck beyond its normal range of motion.

Thoracic / Mid Back

1Thoracic Disc Herniation
In serious cases, a thoracic herniated disc can lead to paralysis from the waist down. Lateral disc herniation. When herniating laterally, or to the side, the thoracic herniated disc is more likely to impinge on the exiting nerve root at that level of the spine and cause radiating chest wall or abdominal pain
2Scoliosis
Scoliosis occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. Most cases are mild with few symptoms. Some children develop spine deformities that get more severe as they grow. Severe scoliosis can be painful and disabling. Often, no treatment is necessary. Sometimes a brace or surgery is needed.

Lumbar / Low Back

1Lumbar Herniated Disc
A herniated disc of the Lumbar is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.
2Lumbar Radiculopathy(Sciatica)
Overview

This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.


Causes (Herniated Disc)

One common cause is a herniated disc. A herniated disc is a rupture in the fibrous outer wall of a vertebral disc, which allows the soft nucleus of the disc to bulge outward. This bulge can press harmfully against a nerve root.


Causes (Degenerative Disc Disease)

Another common cause of nerve root injury is degenerative disc disease. It occurs when a spinal disc weakens, allowing vertebral bones above and below the disc to shift out of position. The bones can touch, pinching nearby nerve roots.


Causes (Spinal Stenosis)

When bones, discs or joints of the spine degenerate, bony spurs may form and push into the spinal canal or foramen space. This is called spinal stenosis, and it can also create harmful pressure against the nerve roots.

Symptoms

Nerve root injury may occur at any of the five vertebrae in the lumbar spine (called the L1 through L5), or at the level of the sacrum (the upper portion of which is called the S1). Symptoms may include pain, weakness, numbness and tingling, and may vary depending on the level of the injury.

For example, an injury at the L2 level can create thigh pain and hip weakness. An injury at the L3 level may result in thigh pain and knee and thigh weakness. Damage at the L4 level may cause pain from the lower back to the foot and also foot weakness. Damage at the L5 level can create pain from the outer leg to the top of the foot and also foot weakness. And finally, damage at the S1 level can create pain from the calf to the outer foot and also foot weakness.
3Lumbar Facet Arthropathy
Facet joint arthropathy refers to a degenerative disease that affects the joints of the spine and the disintegration of cartilage on those joints. ... Next, let's discuss the spinal anatomy involved in osteoarthritis.
4Spinal Stenosis
Overview

The spinal column contains open spaces that create passageways for the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of (or an intrusion into) these openings. This can cause a compression of the nerves. Spinal stenosis most commonly affects the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine.


Anatomy

Each vertebra has a large opening at the rear called the spinal canal. In the cervical and thoracic regions of the spine, the spinal cord travels through this space. In the lumbar region of the spine, this opening contains a bundle of nerve roots. Openings called foramina branch away from the spinal canal. These spaces provide pathways for the nerve roots that travel from the spine to other parts of the body.


Stenosis

In a spine with stenosis, one or more of these openings are narrowed. The spinal nerves can become compressed against the vertebral bone. This can interfere with nerve function. It can cause pain in the spine or in other parts of the body.


Causes

Stenosis is commonly caused by an excess growth of bone around the spinal nerves. This excess bone growth often results from osteoarthritis. Stenosis can also result from a dislocation or a fracture of the vertebral bone. Stenosis can be caused by soft tissue intruding into the spine's open spaces. Herniated discs, tumors, and thickened spinal ligaments can press against the spinal nerves. And in some cases, a person is born with a small spinal canal that does not provide enough room for the spinal nerves.


Symptoms

Symptoms of spinal stenosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the problem. Spinal stenosis can cause pain, weakness, numbness and tingling in the arms and legs. Spinal stenosis in the lower back commonly causes sciatica, a sensation of burning pain that can travel through the buttocks and down the legs. Spinal stenosis can also cause problems with control of the bladder and bowels.


Treatment

Treatment options for spinal stenosis may include anti-inflammatory medications, muscle relaxants and medications to relieve pain. Steroid injections may be beneficial. A physician may also recommend physical therapy. If these methods are not effective, surgery may be needed to eliminate pressure on the nerves.

Other

1Vertebral Compression Fracture
This type of fracture is a collapse of the vertebral bone that can affect one or more vertebra. It can result in a severe deformity of the spinal column. Compression fractures may affect any of the vertebrae, but most commonly occur in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar regions.
2Degenerative Disc Disease
Overview

This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.


degerative disc disease
Disc Wall Tears

Degenerative disc disease typically begins when small tears appear in the disc wall, called the annulus. These tears can cause pain.


Disc Wall Heals

When the tears heal, creating scar tissue that is not as strong as the original disc wall. If the back is repeatedly injured, the process of tearing and scarring may continue, weakening the disc wall.


Disc Center Weakens

Over time, the nucleus (or center) of the disc becomes damaged and loses some of its water content. This center is called the pulposus, and its water content is needed to keep the disc functioning as a shock absorber for the spine.


Nucleus Collapses

Unable to act as a cushion, the nucleus collapses. The vertebrae above and below this damaged disc slide closer together. This improper alignment causes the facet joints - the areas where the vertebral bones touch - to twist into an unnatural position.


Bone Spurs Form

In time, this awkward positioning of the vertebrae may create bone spurs. If these spurs grow into the spinal canal, they may pinch the spinal cord and nerves (a condition called spinal stenosis). The site of the injury may be painful.


Symptoms

Some people experience pain, numbness or tingling in the legs. Strong pain tends to come and go. Bending, twisting and sitting may make the pain worse. Lying down relieves pressure on the spine.

3Spondylolisthesis
Overview

This condition occurs when a lumbar vertebra slips out of place. It slides forward, distorting the shape of your spine. This may compress the nerves in the spinal canal. The nerves that exit the foramen (open spaces on the sides of your vertebrae) may also be compressed. These compressed nerves can cause pain and other problems.


Common Causes

Spondylolisthesis has a variety of causes. In children, it is often due to a birth defect in that area of the spine. Some people develop this condition because of an overuse injury called "spondylolysis." This is a stress fracture of the vertebral bone. In adults, arthritis and the loss of disc elasticity that results from aging are the most common causes of spondylolisthesis.


Other Causes

Less commonly, spondylolisthesis can result from a sudden injury that leads to a broken vertebra. Diseases or tumors that weaken the spine can also result in spondylolisthesis.


Symptoms

Symptoms vary from person to person. Many people who have this condition have no symptoms at all. If you do have symptoms, you may experience pain in your lower back. You may have hamstring spasms. Pain may spread down your leg to your foot. You may also have foot numbness and tingling.


Treatment

Treatment options depend on the severity of your condition. You may benefit from rest. Medications may relieve your pain. A back brace may also help. And, you may benefit from physical therapy. If those methods are not successful, you may benefit from a surgical procedure to reduce nerve compression or to stabilize your spine.

4Post Laminectomy Syndrome (Failed Spine Surgery)
Overview

This condition, also called "failed back syndrome," is a type of chronic pain. It can develop in some people after spine surgery.

laminectomy

Causes

This pain most often develops after a laminectomy procedure. This is the removal of bone at the rear of your vertebrae. The procedure is done to relieve pressure on your spinal nerves. But after a laminectomy, bone or soft tissue may still press on these nerves. Scar tissue may form. And spinal joints may be irritated and inflamed. Pain from any of these issues may be called "post-laminectomy syndrome."


Symptoms

Symptoms may include pain in your back at the site of your surgery. The pain may also radiate down to your buttock and leg. This pain may feel sharp, or it may feel dull and achy.


Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause and the severity of your pain. It may include medications, injections or physical therapy. You may benefit from electrical nerve stimulation or other techniques. If these are not helpful, surgery may relieve your pain.

5Myofacial Pain Syndrome
Myofascial Pain Syndrome is caused by injury or damage to the fascia, the soft, stretchy connective tissue that surrounds muscles, organs and other structures inside the body. The syndrome causes chronic pain in muscles throughout the body, especially in the neck and jaw.
6CRPS (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy)
This chronic condition, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is an unexplained feeling of pain and discomfort that most commonly affects an arm, leg, hand or foot. Often, it begins in the hand or foot and then spreads to affect the entire limb.
7Fibromyalgia
This chronic condition, which can be difficult to diagnose, results in pain throughout the body and a feeling of exhaustion that can last for months at a time. Fibromyalgia affects more women than men, and most often develops during early and middle adulthood.
8Sacroilitis
The sacroiliac joints (SI joints) connect the spine to the pelvis and lower skeleton. Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the SI joint) is commonly caused by degenerative arthritis, traumatic injury, leg length differences, motor vehicle accident, or blow to the buttock or pelvic region.
9Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness-loss of feeling-in the hands, arms, feet, and legs can occur.
10Peripheral Neuropathy
A common cause of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes, but it can also result from injuries, infections, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms include pain, a pins-and-needles sensation, numbness, and weakness.
11Phantom Limb Pain
Phantom limb pain (PLP) refers to ongoing painful sensations that seem to be coming from the part of the limb that is no longer there. The limb is gone, but the pain is real. The onset of this pain most often occurs soon after surgery.
12Joint Pain / Arthritis
Different types of arthritis exist, each with different causes including wear and tear, infections, and underlying diseases. Symptoms include pain, swelling, reduced range of motion, and stiffness. Medications, physical therapy, or sometimes surgery helps reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.
13Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
This debilitating disorder is a type of severe exhaustion that is not improved by bed rest. It can affect anyone, but most commonly affects women in their 40s and 50s. The syndrome is four times more common in women than in men.
14Cervical Herniated Disc
Herniated discs in the neck (cervical spine) can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, chest, arms, and hands. In some cases a very large herniated disc in the neck may cause weakness or unusual tingling affecting other parts of the body, including the legs.
15Headaches / Migraines
A headache, medically known as cephalalgia, is a continuous pain in the head. The pain can be anywhere in the head or neck. The causes for headache can be vascular, muscular, inflammatory or pressure related. A migraine is a severe, painful headache that is often preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound. The excruciating pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days.

Pain Treatment

Cervical / Neck

1Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection
Overview

This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.


Patient Sedated

The procedure is performed with the patient lying down. Intravenous sedation may be administered, and a region of skin and tissue of the neck is numbed with a local anesthetic delivered through a small needle.


Needle Inserted

Using x-ray guidance (also called fluoroscopy), the physician guides a larger needle to the painful area of the neck. The needle is inserted into the epidural space, which is the region through which spinal nerves travel.


Contrast Dye Injected

Contrast dye is injected into the space to make sure the needle is properly positioned near the irritated nerve or nerves.


Steroid Injected

A combination of an anesthetic and cortisone steroid solution is injected into the epidural space. The steroid is an anti-inflammatory medication. It is absorbed by the inflamed nerves to decrease swelling and relieve pressure. The needle is removed and a small bandage is applied.


End of Procedure

The patient goes to a recovery room and is given food and drink and discharged with post treatment instructions. Some patients may need only one injection, but it may take two or three injections (administered weeks apart) to provide significant pain relief.

2Cervical Medial Branch Blocks / Facet Blocks
Overview

This is an injection of numbing medicine. It bathes the medial branch nerves, which attach to the facet joints of your spine. These nerves hurt when facet joints are injured or diseased. The injection helps find the source of your pain. And it may relieve your pain for a brief time.

medical branch

Preparation

To begin, your doctor injects local anesthetic. This numbs your skin and tissue around the areas to be injected.


Inserting the needle

Next, your doctor guides a thin needle through the numbed tissue. A video x-ray device called a "fluoroscope" helps find your medial branch nerves. Contrast dye is injected to make sure the needle is in the right place.


Injection

Then, the doctor injects numbing medicine onto the nerves. The medicine temporarily numbs the nerves. If this area is the source of your pain, you'll feel immediate pain relief. More than one level of the spine may need to be injected.


End of procedure

When the procedure is finished, you'll be watched for a brief time. Then you can go home. You may feel pain relief for the next few hours. You may be asked to keep track of your pain level as the medicine wears off. If the block was successful, your doctor can recommend a procedure to provide long-lasting relief.

3Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Cervical Facets
Overview During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn't respond to medications or to physical therapy.


Preparation

In preparation for the procedure, you lie on your stomach. You are given medicine to make you feel relaxed. The skin and tissue of your neck is numbed.


Inserting the Cannula

The physician inserts a tube called a "cannula." A video x-ray device called a "fluoroscope" helps guide the cannula to the medial branch nerves in your spine. These tiny nerves carry pain signals from your facet joints to your brain.

Treating the Nerves

The physician inserts an electrode through the cannula. A weak electric jolt is used to test its position. If the jolt recreates the pain but does not cause any other muscular effects, it is positioned correctly. Then the physician uses the electrode to heat the nerve. This disrupts its ability to transmit pain signals. Several nerves may be treated if necessary.

End of Procedure

When the procedure is complete, the electrode and cannula are removed. A small bandage is placed on your skin. You will be monitored for a brief time before you are allowed to go home. Your injection site may feel sore after the procedure, and you may still have neck pain. If the correct nerves were treated, you will gradually experience pain relief as you heal. This may take several weeks.

4Posterior Occipital Nerve Blocks
An occipital nerve block is an injection of a steroid or other medication around the greater and lesser occipital nerves that are located on the back of the head just above the neck area.
5Stellate Ganglion Block
This injection can both diagnose and treat pain coming from the sympathetic nerves. It is a common treatment for shingles and complex regional pain syndromes affecting the head, face, neck, or arms. Usually a series of these injections is needed to treat the problem.

Lumbar / Low Back

1Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection performed to relieve pain in the upper back.
2Thoracic Medial Branch Blocks / Facet Blocks
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.
3Lumbar Radiofrequency Ablation of Medial Branch Nerves
RFA uses radiofrequency energy to disrupt nerve function. When this is done to a thoracic medial branch nerve, the nerve can no longer transmit pain from an injured facet join.
4Intercostal Nerve Blocks
An intercostal nerve block is an injection of a steroid or other medication around the intercostal nerves that are located under each rib. This block may reduce pain, and other symptoms caused by conditions such as herpes zoster, rib fractures or a scar after chest surgery.
5Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection
Overview

This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.


Patient Sedated

The procedure is performed with the patient lying down. Intravenous sedation may be administered, and a region of skin and tissue of the neck is numbed with a local anesthetic delivered through a small needle.


Needle Inserted

Using x-ray guidance (also called fluoroscopy), the physician guides a larger needle to the painful area of the neck. The needle is inserted into the epidural space, which is the region through which spinal nerves travel.


Contrast Dye Injected

Contrast dye is injected into the space to make sure the needle is properly positioned near the irritated nerve or nerves.


Steroid Injected

A combination of an anesthetic and cortisone steroid solution is injected into the epidural space. The steroid is an anti-inflammatory medication. It is absorbed by the inflamed nerves to decrease swelling and relieve pressure. The needle is removed and a small bandage is applied.


End of Procedure

The patient goes to a recovery room and is given food and drink and discharged with post treatment instructions. Some patients may need only one injection, but it may take two or three injections (administered weeks apart) to provide significant pain relief.

6Transforaminal Epidural Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. This procedure is performed to relieve pain in the lower back and pain that radiates from the back to the legs. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.
7Lumbar Medial Branch Blocks
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

Other

1Lumbar Sympathetic Nerve Block
Overview

This procedure is an injection that numbs branches of nerves in your lower back. It helps doctors find and treat a number of problems linked to these nerves. Usually, a series of injections is needed to treat a problem.


About the Sympathetic Nerves

The sympathetic nerves travel along both sides of your spine. They are associated with a wide range of functions that you don't consciously control. These include your circulation, digestion and sweat production.


Preparation

In preparation for the procedure, you lie on your stomach or your side. You are given medicine to make you feel relaxed. The skin and tissue at the injection site is numbed.


Inserting the Needle

The physician inserts a needle and carefully guides it to the sympathetic nerves. The physician typically uses an x-ray device called a "fluoroscope." This shows a video image of the needle's position. Contrast dye may be injected to help confirm that the needle is placed correctly.


Injecting the Medicine

Next, the physician injects medicine. It bathes the nerves. It can numb the nerves and reduce inflammation. If these nerves have been a source of pain, the medicine can relieve it. The injection may also provide other benefits, depending on your needs.


End of Procedure

When the procedure is complete, the needle is removed and the injection site is covered with a bandage. You will be monitored for a brief time before you are allowed to go home. After a lumbar sympathetic block, many people experience leg numbness or weakness. This is normal, and usually lasts for only a few hours. You may need to return for more injections in the future.

2Superior Hypogastric Nerve Block
A superior hypogastric plexus block is a type of injection that is used to control pelvic pain that does not respond to oral medications. This block can also alleiviate pain from the bladder, urethra, uterus, vagina, vulva, perineum, prostate, penis, testes, rectum, and descending colon.
3Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.
4Sacroiliac Joint Injection
Overview

This injection procedure is performed to relieve pain caused by arthritis in the sacroiliac joint where the spine and hip bone meet. The steroid medication can reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint.


Sacroiliac Joint Located

The patient lies face down. A cushion is placed under the stomach for comfort and to arch the back. The physician uses touch and a fluoroscope to find the sacroiliac joint.


Anesthetic Injected

A local anesthetic numbs the skin and all the tissue down to the surface of the sacroiliac joint.


Needle Inserted

The physician advances a needle through the anesthetized track and into the sacroiliac joint. Steroids Injected A steroid-anesthetics mix is injected into the sacroiliac joint, bathing the painful area in medication.


End of Procedure

The needle is removed, and a small bandage is used to cover the tiny surface wound.

5Spinal Cord Stimulator
Overview

Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.


Trial Implantation

The injection site is anesthetized. One or more insulated wire leads are inserted through an epidural needle or through a small incision into the space surrounding the spinal cord, called the epidural space.


Find the Right Location

Electrodes at the end of the lead produce electrical pulses that stimulate the nerves, blocking pain signals. The patient gives feedback to help the physician determine where to place the stimulators to best block the patient's pain. The leads are connected to an external trial stimulator, which will be used for approximately one week to determine if SCS will help the patient.


Determine Effectiveness

If the patient and the physician determine that the amount of pain relief is acceptable, the system may be permanently implanted. At the end of the trial implantation, the leads are removed.


Permanent Implantation

The permanent implantation may be performed while the patient is under sedation or general anesthesia. First, one or more permanent leads are inserted through an epidural needle or a small incision into the predetermined location in the epidural space.


Generator Implantation

Next, a small incision is created, and the implantable pulse generator (IPG) battery is positioned beneath the skin. It is most often implanted in the buttocks or the abdomen. The leads are then connected to the IPG battery.


End of Procedure

The implant’s electrical pulses are programmed with an external wireless programmer. The patient can use the programmer to turn the system on or off, adjust the stimulation power level and switch between different programs.


After SCS Implantation

After surgery, patients may experience mild discomfort and swelling at the incision sites for several days.

6Intrathetical Pump
An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and surgery is not likely to help.
7Celiac Plexus Block / Neurolysis
This procedure is performed to diagnose and reduce abdominal pain caused by conditions such as cancer or pancreatitis. An injection is used to block the nerves serving the abdomen. An intravenous (IV) line may be used to administer medication to relax the patient.
8Ganglion of Impar Block
A ganglion impar block is a procedure used to reduce some of the symptoms of chronic pelvic or rectal pain by blocking nerve impulses. The ganglion impar is a structure located at the level of the coccyx. The nerve block can be diagnostic or therapeutic.
9Joint Injections
A local anesthetic (usually lidocaine or bupivacaine) is typically injected into the joint with the goal of determining immediate pain relief to confirm the sacroiliac joint as the source of the patient's pain. This solution is used for a diagnostic sacroiliac joint injection.
10Bursa Injection
Bursa injection is used to treat pain around a joint or bone due to inflammation of the bursa (sac producing fluid to lubricate the joint). Medications used for the injection can include anti-inflammatories, local anesthetics, or platelet-rich plasma.
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