Knowledge Center

Diagnosis

Cervical Neck

1Cervical Radiculopathy

This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the cervical spine. Because these nerves travel to the shoulders, arms and hands, an injury in the cervical spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Cervical radiculopathy may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the cervical spinal column.

2Cervical Herniated Disc

A herniated disc is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.

3Cervical Facet Syndrome
Cervical facet syndrome, also known as cervical facet disease or cervical osteoarthritis, is the structural deterioration of one or more of the vertebral facet joints in the cervical (upper) segment of the spine, which is mostly located in the neck.
4Whiplash
Whiplash, also called cervical acceleration / deceleration (or CAD) syndrome, is a neck injury commonly caused by car accidents, falls, and contact sports. It results from a quick, jerking motion that forces the neck beyond its normal range of motion.

Thoracic / Mid Back

1Thoracic Disc Herniation
In serious cases, a thoracic herniated disc can lead to paralysis from the waist down. Lateral disc herniation. When herniating laterally, or to the side, the thoracic herniated disc is more likely to impinge on the exiting nerve root at that level of the spine and cause radiating chest wall or abdominal pain
2Scoliosis
Scoliosis occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. Most cases are mild with few symptoms. Some children develop spine deformities that get more severe as they grow. Severe scoliosis can be painful and disabling. Often, no treatment is necessary. Sometimes a brace or surgery is needed.

Lumbar / Low Back

1Lumbar Herniated Disc
A herniated disc of the Lumbar is a common injury that can affect any part of the spine. A herniated disc can cause severe pain and other problems in the arms or legs.
2Lumbar Radiculopathy(Sciatica)

This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.

3Lumbar Facet Arthropathy
Facet joint arthropathy refers to a degenerative disease that affects the joints of the spine and the disintegration of cartilage on those joints. ... Next, let's discuss the spinal anatomy involved in osteoarthritis.
4Spinal Stenosis

The spinal column contains open spaces that create passageways for the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of (or an intrusion into) these openings. This can cause a compression of the nerves. Spinal stenosis most commonly affects the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine.

Other

1Vertebral Compression Fracture
This type of fracture is a collapse of the vertebral bone that can affect one or more vertebra. It can result in a severe deformity of the spinal column. Compression fractures may affect any of the vertebrae, but most commonly occur in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar regions.
2Degenerative Disc Disease

This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.

3Spondylolisthesis

This condition occurs when a lumbar vertebra slips out of place. It slides forward, distorting the shape of your spine. This may compress the nerves in the spinal canal. The nerves that exit the foramen (open spaces on the sides of your vertebrae) may also be compressed. These compressed nerves can cause pain and other problems.

4Post Laminectomy Syndrome (Failed Spine Surgery)

This condition, also called "failed back syndrome," is a type of chronic pain. It can develop in some people after spine surgery.

5Myofacial Pain Syndrome
Myofascial Pain Syndrome is caused by injury or damage to the fascia, the soft, stretchy connective tissue that surrounds muscles, organs and other structures inside the body. The syndrome causes chronic pain in muscles throughout the body, especially in the neck and jaw.
6Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy)
This chronic condition, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is an unexplained feeling of pain and discomfort that most commonly affects an arm, leg, hand or foot. Often, it begins in the hand or foot and then spreads to affect the entire limb.
7Fibromyalgia
This chronic condition, which can be difficult to diagnose, results in pain throughout the body and a feeling of exhaustion that can last for months at a time. Fibromyalgia affects more women than men, and most often develops during early and middle adulthood.
8Sacroilitis
The sacroiliac joints (SI joints) connect the spine to the pelvis and lower skeleton. Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the SI joint) is commonly caused by degenerative arthritis, traumatic injury, leg length differences, motor vehicle accident, or blow to the buttock or pelvic region.
9Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness-loss of feeling-in the hands, arms, feet, and legs can occur.
10Peripheral Neuropathy
A common cause of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes, but it can also result from injuries, infections, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms include pain, a pins-and-needles sensation, numbness, and weakness.
11Phantom Limb Pain
Phantom limb pain (PLP) refers to ongoing painful sensations that seem to be coming from the part of the limb that is no longer there. The limb is gone, but the pain is real. The onset of this pain most often occurs soon after surgery.
12Joint Pain / Arthritis
Different types of arthritis exist, each with different causes including wear and tear, infections, and underlying diseases. Symptoms include pain, swelling, reduced range of motion, and stiffness. Medications, physical therapy, or sometimes surgery helps reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.
13Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
This debilitating disorder is a type of severe exhaustion that is not improved by bed rest. It can affect anyone, but most commonly affects women in their 40s and 50s. The syndrome is four times more common in women than in men.
14Cervical Herniated Disc
Herniated discs in the neck (cervical spine) can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, chest, arms, and hands. In some cases a very large herniated disc in the neck may cause weakness or unusual tingling affecting other parts of the body, including the legs.
15Headaches / Migraines
A headache, medically known as cephalalgia, is a continuous pain in the head. The pain can be anywhere in the head or neck. The causes for headache can be vascular, muscular, inflammatory or pressure related. A migraine is a severe, painful headache that is often preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound. The excruciating pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days.

Pain Treatment

Cervical / Neck

1Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

This injection relieves pain in the neck, shoulders, and arms caused by a pinched nerve (or nerves) in the cervical spine. Conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis can compress nerves, causing inflammation and pain. The medication injected helps decrease the swelling of nerves.

2Cervical Medial Branch Blocks / Facet Blocks

This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

3Radiofrequency Neurotomy of the Cervical Facets

During this minimally-invasive procedure, the physician uses heat from radio waves to treat painful facet joints in your neck. This procedure is also called radiofrequency rhizotomy. It can treat pain that doesn't respond to medications or to physical therapy.

4Posterior Occipital Nerve Blocks
An occipital nerve block is an injection of a steroid or other medication around the greater and lesser occipital nerves that are located on the back of the head just above the neck area.
5Stellate Ganglion Block
This injection can both diagnose and treat pain coming from the sympathetic nerves. It is a common treatment for shingles and complex regional pain syndromes affecting the head, face, neck, or arms. Usually a series of these injections is needed to treat the problem.

Lumbar / Low Back

1Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection performed to relieve pain in the upper back.
2Thoracic Medial Branch Blocks / Facet Blocks
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.
3Lumbar Radiofrequency Ablation of Medial Branch Nerves
RFA uses radiofrequency energy to disrupt nerve function. When this is done to a thoracic medial branch nerve, the nerve can no longer transmit pain from an injured facet join.
4Intercostal Nerve Blocks
An intercostal nerve block is an injection of a steroid or other medication around the intercostal nerves that are located under each rib. This block may reduce pain, and other symptoms caused by conditions such as herpes zoster, rib fractures or a scar after chest surgery.
5Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve low back and radiating leg pain. Steroid medication can reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by spinal conditions.
6Transforaminal Epidural Injection
This outpatient procedure is an injection of a steroid-anesthetic medication. The medication can reduce swelling and inflammation of irritated spinal nerves. This procedure is performed to relieve pain in the lower back and pain that radiates from the back to the legs. The injection takes only a few minutes to complete.
7Lumbar Medial Branch Blocks
This diagnostic procedure is performed to identify a painful facet joint. The facet joints are the joints between the vertebrae in the spine. They allow the spine to bend, flex and twist.

Other

1Lumbar Sympathetic Nerve Block
This procedure is performed to relieve leg pain caused by complex regional pain syndromes, which may develop after an injury to a joint or limb. Usually a series of injections are needed to treat the problem.
2Superior Hypogastric Nerve Block
A superior hypogastric plexus block is a type of injection that is used to control pelvic pain that does not respond to oral medications. This block can also alleiviate pain from the bladder, urethra, uterus, vagina, vulva, perineum, prostate, penis, testes, rectum, and descending colon.
3Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression
This minimally-invasive procedure is performed through a small tubular device. It is designed to relieve pain caused by herniated discs pressing on nerve roots. The surgery is performed under local or epidural anesthesia, allowing the patient to leave the hospital the same day.
4Sacroiliac Joint Injection
This injection procedure is performed to relieve pain caused by arthritis in the sacroiliac joint where the spine and hip bone meet. The steroid medication can reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint.
5Spinal Cord Stimulator
Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed.
6Intrathetical Pump
An intrathecal pump relieves chronic pain. It uses small amounts of medicine applied directly to the intrathecal space (the area surrounding the spinal cord) to prevent pain signals from being perceived by the brain. Pump candidates include people for whom conservative treatments have failed and surgery is not likely to help.
7Celiac Plexus Block / Neurolysis
This procedure is performed to diagnose and reduce abdominal pain caused by conditions such as cancer or pancreatitis. An injection is used to block the nerves serving the abdomen. An intravenous (IV) line may be used to administer medication to relax the patient.
8Ganglion of Impar Block
A ganglion impar block is a procedure used to reduce some of the symptoms of chronic pelvic or rectal pain by blocking nerve impulses. The ganglion impar is a structure located at the level of the coccyx. The nerve block can be diagnostic or therapeutic.
9Joint Injections
A local anesthetic (usually lidocaine or bupivacaine) is typically injected into the joint with the goal of determining immediate pain relief to confirm the sacroiliac joint as the source of the patient's pain. This solution is used for a diagnostic sacroiliac joint injection.
10Bursa Injection
Bursa injection is used to treat pain around a joint or bone due to inflammation of the bursa (sac producing fluid to lubricate the joint). Medications used for the injection can include anti-inflammatories, local anesthetics, or platelet-rich plasma.
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